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Flat UI designs are slow

A study, which makes me happy (I do not like flat design) :-)

Flat UI Elements Attract Less Attention and Cause Uncertainty
A "flat" design removes the distinction between navigation controls and content. Historically, navigation controls such as buttons were shaded, or given 3D relief, to distinguish them from the application or web page's content.
Flat interfaces often use weak signifiers. In an eyetracking experiment comparing different kinds of clickability clues, UIs with weak signifiers required more user effort than strong ones.

It's official: Users navigate flat UI designs 22 per cent slower

Put in some chrome and shade